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What was the cause of the Morant Bay rebellion in Jamaica?

Edward John Eyre - Then Governor Of Jamaica: JIS Photo

Edward John Eyre - Then Governor Of Jamaica: JIS Photo

by Wellesley Gayle

The Morant Bay Rebellion was an important turning point in the The History Of Jamaica. After an official inquiry by a royal commission, the Governor was dismissed and the political constitution of Jamaica was transformed. Direct rule from London, called the "Crown Colony Government", was also established in its place.

But what triggered the uprising?

Hmm... great question!

In the years following Emancipation, the government was still controlled by the wealthy and powerful white class and the peasants had no representation to speak on their behalf. This frustrated them.

Several other factors contributed to social and economic hardship.

These included:
  1. The collapse of the sugar industry
  2. Widespread unemployment:
  3. An increase in the price of imported goods caused by the American Civil War:
  4. Heavy taxation and the scarcity of money:
  5. The outbreak of cholera and smallpox in the 1850s, approximately which killed approximately 50,000 people;
  6. drought: and
  7. a justice system which worked 'against the peasants. It was made up mostly of the managers of the estates. It was virtually impossible for the estate labourers to get justice.

There was also the problem of finding fertile land on which to farm and live. Some peasants in their desperation squatted on lands and were often evicted and arrested.

To further worsen the situation, in 1862, Edward John Eyre was appointed governor of Jamaica. He was said to have no sympathy for the peasants.
There was, however, one wealthy merchant and planter, George William Gordon, who sympathized with the plight of the peasants and who spoke up for them. George William Gordon was the son of a slave woman and a Scottish planter.

Although born a slave, through determination and hard work, he educated himself and was elected to the Legislative Assembly in 1844. He knew Paul Bugle, a prosperous small farmer from Stony Gut. St. Thomas and had him ordained a Deacon of the Baptist Church in March 1864.

Paul Bogle was a natural leader and the people took him as their spokesman.

On August 12, 1865, Bogle led a group on a 72-kilometre (approximately 45 miles) march from Stony Gut to Spanish Town to see the Governor. He, however, refused to see them.

The frustration of the peasants continued to grow until it erupted on October 11, 1865. Violence broke out during a march on the Morant Bay courthouse led by Bogle.

In the ensuing clash between the people from Stony Gut on one hand and the armed volunteer forces and some policemen on the other.

After 7 persons were shot and killed by the militia, The courthouse, which the angry protesters felt symbolized injustice and oppression, was burnt.

A number of other persons, including the Custos, were later killed.

I hope this helps.

I also recommend you read Paul Bogle National Hero Of Jamaica.

As usual, I welcome your comments.


  • Freedom Road, JIS Publication
  • Team Jamaica Handbook, 5th Edition
  • Senior, Olive, Encyclopedia of Jamaican Heritage, 2003.

Editor's Note
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Comments for What was the cause of the Morant Bay rebellion in Jamaica?

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Nov 30, 2019
great. thank
by: Anonymous

thank you.

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